Glossary of Terms

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A
TermDefinition
AISLE

An unenclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel.

 

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN

A method of proportioning structural members, such that elastically computed stresses produced in the members by nominal loads do not exceed specified allowable stresses (also called “working stress design”). 

ALTERATION

Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition. 

 
ACCESSIBLE

A site, building, facility or portion thereof that complies with Chapter 11. of the IBC2012

Accessory

An extra building product.

ACCREDITATION BODY

An approved, third-party organization that is independent of the grading and inspection agencies, and the lumber mills, and that initially accredits and subsequently monitors, on a continuing basis, the competency and performance of a grading or inspection agency related to carrying out specific tasks.

 

ACZA

Ammoniacal Copper Zinc Arsenate – a preservative treatment normally used on difficult to treat wood specie such as Douglas Fir.

Addition

An extension or increase in floor area or height of a building.

ADHERED MASONRY VENEER

Veneer secured and supported through the adhesion of an approved bonding material applied to an approved backing. 

AGRICULTURAL BUILDING

A structure designed and constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, livestock or other horticultural products. This structure shall not be a place of human habitation or a place of employment where agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor shall it be a place used by the public

Air Duct

Pipes that carry warm air and cold air to rooms and back to furnace or air conditioning system.

Anchored seam fastener

A seam fastener that penetrates the underlying structural framing a sufficient amount so as to significantly affect the shear characteristics of the connection.

Apron

A paved area, such as the juncture of a driveway with the street or with a garage entrance.

AREA, BUILDING

The area included within surrounding exterior walls (or exterior walls and fire walls) exclusive of vent shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the building area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above.

 

ATTIC

The space between the ceiling beams of the top story and the roof rafters. 

Auger

Tool with a spiral cutting edge used for boring holes.

AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC)

Low density cementitious product of calcium silicate hydrates, whose material specifications are defined in ASTM C 1386. 

AWNING

 An architectural projection that provides weather protection, identity or decoration and is partially or wholly supported by the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of a lightweight frame structure over which a covering is attached. 

B
TermDefinition
Bookshelf girt

A girt with its wide faces horizontally oriented thus enabling it to effectively function as a shelf when left exposed.

Backfill

The gravel or earth replaced in the space around a building wall after foundations are in place.

BACKING

The wall or surface to which the veneer is secured. 

Baluster

A small column.

Barn Raising

An event in which a community comes together to assemble a barn for one or more of its households.

Base plate

A corrosion and decay resistant member that is attached to the top of a concrete floor or wall. A base plate is generally located between posts and may function like a bottom girt. Unlike a girt, primary attachment of a base plate is to the concrete and not the posts.

Baseboard

A board along the floor against walls and partitions to hide gaps.

Batt

Insulation in the form of a blanket, rather than loose filling.

Bay

Any of a number of similar major vertical divisions of a large interior, wall, etc.

Beam

One of the principal horizontal timbers in a wood-framed building. Its primary function is to carry transverse loads such as floor joists or rafters.

Bearing block

A relatively short structural support used to transfer vertical load from one structural member to another. Frequently used to transfer load from a girder to a post or a truss to a post.

Beveled purlin

A purlin with an edge that has been cut at an angle, generally to facilitate cladding attachment.

Bird’s Mouth

A cutout near the bottom of a rafter that fits over the rafter plate.

Bottom chord continuous lateral restraint

A row of structural framing members that provides lateral support to the bottom chords of adjacent trusses.

Bottom chord diagonal brace

A diagonal brace that lies in the plane formed by the bottom chords of adjacent trusses (a.k.a.., the ceiling plane). The braces are used to prevent bottom chord continuous lateral restraints from shifting.

Bottom girt

The lowest girt. This could be a regular girt, grade girt, or a splash plank.

Bracing

Axially-loaded structural members used to help stabilize other structural components. Additional temporary bracing is generally required during construction

Bracing for individual members

The buckling resistance of an individual framing member is often increased by attaching a T-, L-, or scab reinforcement to the side of the member.

Break Joints

To arrange joints so that they do not come directly under or over the joints of adjoining pieces such as in shingling and siding.

Building bay

The area between adjacent post-frames.

Building height

Vertical distance between the floor level and the ridge line. Also known as ridge height.

Building length

Horizontal distance between the outside face of the girts in one endwall and the outside face of the girts in the opposite endwall.

Building systems

A post-frame building system is structurally analogous to the typical low-rise metal building system. Conventional buildings of both types have two-dimensional primary frames that are connected with secondary framing members. Nomenclature for both building systems is similar. The major difference is that the majority of framing members in a post-frame building are wood-based.

Building width

Horizontal distance between the outside face of the girts in one sidewall and the outside face of the girts in the opposite sidewall.

Butt Joint
Joining point of two pieces of wood or molding.
C
TermDefinition
Cantilever

A projecting beam or joist, not supported at one end, used to support an extension of a structure. 

A beam or other structure projecting from a wall and supporting an extension to a building, as on a cantilevered balcony or upper store.

Casing

Door and window framing.

CCA

Chromated Copper Arsenate – a preservative treatment normally used on easily treated wood specie such as  Southern Yellow Pine Hem-Fir or Ponderosa Pine.

Clapboard

A long thin board, thicker on one edge, overlapped and nailed on for exterior siding.

Clear height

Vertical distance between the finished floor and the lowest part of a truss, rafter, or girder.

Clear span

Horizontal distance from the face of one support to the face of the opposite support.

Collar

Foundation component attached below grade to an embedded post or pier, and that moves with it to resist lateral and vertical loads.

Compression edge bracing

A compression edge brace may be used to support the bottom edge of a stacked rafter at locations near interior supports. In this case, the brace would be a diagonal member that connects the bottom edge of the rafter to nearby purlins.

Compression-edge brace

A brace used to provide lateral support to the compressive edge of a beam or column. More commonly referred to as flange brace when used to support the compressive edge of an I-shaped section.

Concrete

An artificial building material made by mixing cement and sand with gravel, broken stone, or other aggregate plus sufficient water to cause the cement to set and bind the entire mass.

Carbonate aggregate. Concrete made with aggregates consisting mainly of calcium or magnesium carbonate, such as limestone or dolomite, and containing 40 percent or less quartz, chert or flint.

Cellular. A lightweight insulating concrete made by mixing a preformed foam with Portland cement slurry and having a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 kg/m3).

Lightweight aggregate. Concrete made with aggregates of expanded clay, shale, slag or slate or sintered fly ash or any natural lightweight aggregate meeting ASTM C 330 and possessing equivalent fire-resistance properties and weighing 85 to 115 pcf (1360 to 1840 kg/m3).

Perlite. A lightweight insulating concrete having a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 kg/m3) made with perlite concrete aggregate. Perlite aggregate is produced from a volcanic rock which, when heated, expands to form a glass-like material of cellular structure.

Sand-lightweight. Concrete made with a combination of expanded clay, shale, slag, slate, sintered fly ash, or any natural lightweight aggregate meeting ASTM C 330 and possessing equivalent fire-resistance properties and natural sand. Its unit weight is generally between 105 and 120 pcf (1680 and 1920 kg/m3).

Siliceous aggregate. Concrete made with normal-weight aggregates consisting mainly of silica or compounds other than calcium or magnesium carbonate, which contains more than 40-percent quartz, chert or flint.

Vermiculite. A light weight insulating concrete made with vermiculite concrete aggregate which is laminated micaceous material produced by expanding the ore at high temperatures. When added to a Portland cement slurry the resulting concrete has a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 kg/m3).

Continuous lateral restraint (CLR)

An uninterrupted row of structural framing members connecting a series of trusses. The row is perpendicular to truss members and thus provides lateral support to the truss members it connects.

Crawl Space

A shallow, unfinished space beneath the first floor of a house which has no basement, used for visual inspection and access to pipes and ducts. Also, a shallow space in the attic, immediately under the roof.

Cripples

Cut-off framing members above and below windows.

Cupola

A feature at the top of a roof, usually Box-shaped and opened by louvers or vents.

D
DEAD LOAD

The weight of materials of construction incorporated into the building, including but not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, finishes, cladding and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and the weight of fixed service equipment, such as cranes, plumbing stacks and risers, electrical feeders, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems and automatic sprinkler systems. 

Diagonal brace

A framing member that runs at an angle to other framing members, and with other framing members generally forms a structurally-stable triangular assembly.

Diaphragm

A structural assembly comprised of structural sheathing (e.g., plywood, metal cladding) that is fastened to roof, ceiling, floor or floor framing in such a manner that the entire assembly is capable of transferring in-plane shear forces.

Diaphragm chord forces

Chords developing the largest axial forces are often eave and ridge purlins or members near the eave and ridge purlins.

Diaphragm chords

Diaphragm structural framing members that run perpendicular to the applied load, and thus are subjected to axial forces when the load works to bend the diaphragm.

Diaphragm components

When post-frame building components (e.g., purlins, girts, purlin blocks, mechanical fasteners, etc.) are positioned and connected in such a way to form a diaphragm.

Diaphragm structural framing

Primary and secondary framing members to which structural sheathing panels are attached to form a diaphragm assembly. Diaphragm structural framing (1) resists bending moments applied to the diaphragm, (2) helps transfer in-plane shear forces across the diaphragm, and (3) prevents out-of-plane buckling of structural sheathing.

Dormer

The projecting frame of a recess in a sloping roof.

Double Glazing

An insulating window pane formed of two thicknesses of glass with a sealed air space between them.

Double Hung Windows

Windows with an upper and lower sash, each supported by cords and weights.

Downspout Leader

Downspout A spout or pipe to carry rain water down from a roof or gutters.

Downspout Strap

A piece of metal which secures the downspout to the eaves or wall of a building.

Drag strut

A member, typically horizontal, that transfers shear from a floor, roof or ceiling diaphragm to a shear wall.

Dry Wall

A wall surface of plasterboard or material other than plaster.

E
TermDefinition
Eave girder

Girder located at the eave of a building.

Eave height

Vertical distance between the floor level and the eave line.

Eave line

Line formed by the intersection of the plane formed by the top edge of the purlins and the plane formed by the outside edge of the sidewall girts.

Eave overhang distance

Horizontal distance from the eave line to the outside of the subfacia.

Eave purlin

A purlin located at the eave line of a building. An eave purlin to which both wall and roof sheathing are attached is known as an eave strut.

Eave strut

An eave purlin to which both wall and roof sheathing are attached, or a top girt to which both wall and roof sheathing are attached. Simultaneous attachment of an eave strut to both wall and roof sheathing generally provides the strut with effective continuous lateral support to resist bending about both primary axes.

Edge fastener

A sheathing-to-framing connector that is located along the sides or ends of a structural sheathing panel.

Edge purlin

A purlin in the most outer row of purlins. All fascia purlins are edge purlins but not all edge purlins are fascia purlins.

Embedded pier

A relatively short column embedded in the soil to provide support for an above-grade post, beam, wall, or other structure. Piers include members of any material with assigned structural properties such as solid or laminated wood, steel, or concrete. Embedded piers differ from embedded posts in that they seldom extend above the lowest horizontal framing element in a structure, and when they do, it is often no more than a couple decimeters.

Endwall

An exterior wall oriented parallel to individual primary frames.

Endwall diagonal brace

A framing member used to transfer load from an endwall to the roof plane. Generally used above large endwall openings or where an endwall post is not continuous from grade to the rake (e.g., an endpost is terminated near the bottom chord of an endwall truss).

Endwall frame

Consists of endwall posts and the attached endwall truss or rake rafters.

Endwall post

Post located in an endwall. 5.1.7 Sidewall post: Post located in a sidewall. 5.1.8 Corner post: Post that is part of both a sidewall and an endwall.

Expandable endwall

Endwall frame designed with the load-bearing capability of an interior frame (i.e. primary frame) so it can serve as an interior frame when the building is expanded.

Exterior girt

A girt located entirely on the outside of posts. Also known as an outset girt.

F
TermDefinition
Fascia purlin

A purlin that helps form the fascia of a building. Also known as an edge purlin.

Field fastener

A sheathing-to-framing connector that is not located along the sides or ends of a structural sheathing panel.

FIRE PROTECTION RATING

The period of time that an opening protective will maintain the ability to confine a fire as determined by tests prescribed in Section 715. Ratings are stated in hours or minutes

Flashing

Noncorrosive metal used around angles or junctions in roofs and exterior walls to prevent leaks.

Floor level

Elevation of the finished floor surface. In the absence of a finished floor, the floor level is taken as the elevation of the bottom edge of the bottom girt. In buildings with stemwall foundations and no finished floor, floor level is taken as the elevation of the unfinished floor.

Fly rafter

Rafter at the rake overhang that is supported out from the endwall by rake purlins.

Footing

Foundation component at the base of a post, pier or wall that provides resistance to vertical downward forces. When a footing is located below grade and properly attached to a post, pier or wall, it aids in the resistance of lateral and vertical uplift forces.

Foundation depth

Vertical distance from the grade line to the bottom of the foundation. Typically the vertical distance from the ground surface to the base of the footing. Also known as foundation embedment depth.

Frame spacing

On-center horizontal spacing of primary frames. Frame spacing may vary within a building. Also known as bay width.

Freight-on-Board

A term used in shipping to refer to the place where the buyer becomes responsible for the shipment and the shipping charges.

Fully recessed purlin

Recessed purlin whose top edge aligns with or is below the top edge of the trusses/rafters to which it is connected.

G
TermDefinition
Gambrel Roof

A roof with two pitches, designed to provide more space on upper floors. The roof is steeper on its lower slope and flatter toward the ridge.

Ganged wood truss

A truss designed to be installed as an assembly of two or more individual light wood trusses fastened together to act as one.

Girder

A large, generally horizontal, beam. Commonly used in post-frame buildings to support trusses whose bearing points do not coincide with a post. Frequently function as headers over large door and window openings.

Girder truss

Truss designed to carry heavy loads from other structural members framing into it. Frequently a ganged wood truss.

Girt

A member attached (typically at a right angle) to posts. Girts laterally support posts and transfer loads between any attached wall sheathing and the posts.

Girt spacing

On-center vertical spacing of girts.

Glazing

Fitting glass into windows or doors.

Glued-laminated post (or glulam post)

Post consisting of suitably selected sawn lumber laminations joined with a structural adhesive.

Grade beam

A corrosion and decay resistant beam located on the soil surface. Also a long, thickened, and more heavily-reinforced portion of a slab-on-grade foundation.

Grade girt

A bottom girt located at grade. May also function as a splash plank.

Grade line (grade level)

The line of intersection between the building exterior and the finished ground surface and/or top of the pavement in contact with the building exterior.

Green Lumber

Lumber which has been inadequately dried and which tends to warp or “bleed” resin.

Gusset

A brace or bracket used to strengthen a structure.

Gutter

A channel at the eaves for conveying away rain water.

H
TermDefinition
Hay door

 A door near the top of a barn through which hay is loaded into the loft.

Hay hood

An extension of the ridge of a barn roof which protects or supports pulley attachments used to load hay into the loft.

Header
Framing member at the top of a window, door or other framed opening. In general, any framing member that ties together the ends of adjacent framing members and may or may not be load bearing.
Author: Matthew
Heavy timber truss

A truss manufactured from wood members whose narrowest dimension is equal to or greater than 5 nominal inches. Wood members include solid-sawn timber, structural composite lumber, and glulams. Members generally connected with steel gusset plates that are bolted in place.

Heel

The end of a rafter that rests on the wall plate.

Hip

The external angle formed by the juncture of two slopes of a roof.

Hip Roof

A roof that slants upward on three or four sides.

Hybrid primary frame

Primary frame assembled with both open-web trusses and solid-web members for roof support.

I
TermDefinition
IMPACT LOAD

The load resulting from moving machinery, elevators, craneways, vehicles and other similar forces and kinetic loads, pressure and possible surcharge from fixed or moving loads. 

Inset girt

A girt located entirely between adjacent posts. Frequently used to support both exterior and interior wall sheathing and horizontally-placed batt insulation.

Interior girt

A girt located entirely on the inside of posts. Generally used to support interior wall sheathing in buildings with exterior girts.

 

J
TermDefinition
Jamb post

Post that frames the side of a door, window, or other framed opening.

Joist

A small rectangular sectional member arranged parallel from wall to wall in a building, or resting on beams or girders. They support a floor or the laths or furring strips of a ceiling.

K
TermDefinition
Kiln-Dried

Artificial drying of lumber, superior to most lumber that is air dried

King-Post

The middle post of a truss. Large, heavy screws, used where great strength is required, as in heavy framing or when attaching ironwork to wood.

Knee brace

A diagonally-oriented member used to stiffen and strengthen the connection between a post and the attached roof truss/ rafter, or between a post and an attached girder.

 

L
TermDefinition
L-reinforcement

A member that is attached to a structural framing member such that the cross-section of the two adjoined members forms an el.

Lag-Bolts

Large, heavy screws, used where great strength is required, as in heavy framing or when attaching ironwork to wood.

Lapped purlins

Two non-recessed purlins (i.e., purlins-on-edge, purlins-laid-flat, or notched purlins) that bypass each other where they are connected to the same truss/rafter.

Lean-to

A small addition with a single-pitched roof.

Ledger

A piece of wood which is attached to a beam to support joists.

Light wood truss

A truss manufactured from wood members whose narrowest dimension is less than 5 nominal inches. Wood members include solid-sawn lumber, structural composite lumber, and glulams. Members may be connected with metal connector plates (MCP), bolts, timber connectors, and screwed- or nailed-on plywood gusset plates.

Lintel

The top piece over a door or window which supports walls above the opening.

Lookout

A short member in an eave overhang that connects the sub-fascia and wall. Generally used to support soffit. Unlike a rafter extension, a lookout is not used to structurally support purlins or eave sub-fascia.

Lot Line Change, Adjustment

The alteration, movement, or shifting of a lot line for an existing lot.

Lot Line Creation

The initial establishment of a lot line for a new lot.      

Louver

An opening with horizontal slats to permit passage of air, but excluding rain, sunlight and view.

 

M
TermDefinition
Mechanically-laminated post (or mechlam post)

Post consisting of suitably selected sawn lumber laminations or structural composite lumber (SCL) laminations joined with nails, screws, bolts, and/or other mechanical fasteners.

Metal plate connected wood truss (MPCWT)

A truss composed of wood members joined with metal connector plates (also know as truss plates). Metal connector plates (MCP) are light-gage, toothed steel plates. The most common type of light wood truss.

Moisture Barrier

Treated paper or metal that retards or bars water vapor, used to keep moisture from passing into walls or floors.

Monitor

A large structure rising above the surrounding roof planes, designed to give light and/or ventilation to the building interior.

Monolithic Slab

Foundation formed from or composed of a single material; seamless.

Mullion

Slender framing which divides the lights or panes of windows

N
TermDefinition
Nail-laminated post (or nail-lam post)

A mechanically laminated post in which only nails have been used to join individual wood layers.

Notched girt

A girt that is notched to facilitate attachment to a post. Notching places a portion of the girt between adjacent posts, with the remainder located outside or inside the posts.

Notched purlin

A purlin that is notched to fit over roof trusses/rafters.

 

O
TermDefinition
Open-web primary frame

Primary frame fabricated with open-web trusses and no solid-web members for roof support.

P
TermDefinition
Parallel chord truss

Truss with top and bottom chords with equal slopes.

Partially recessed purlin

Recessed purlin whose top edge is above the top edge of the trusses/rafters to which it is connected.

Partition

A permanent interior wall that divides a building into rooms.

Pier and beam foundation

A pier foundation that supports a grade beam.

Pier embedment depth

Vertical distance from the grade line to the bottom of a pier or embedded post.

Pier foundation

A foundation consisting of an embedded pier and all attached below-grade elements, which may include a footing, uplift resistance system, and collar.

Pitch

The angle of slope of a roof.

Pole

A round, naturally tapered, unsawn, wood post. Poles are sometimes slabbed to aid in fastening framing members.

Pole-frame building system

A post-frame building in which all posts are round poles. Commonly referred to as a pole building.

Post

A structural column. Functions as a major foundation element when it is embedded in the soil. Post-frame building posts include solid-sawn posts, structural composite lumber posts, glulam posts, mechanically-laminated lumber posts, and poles.

Post foundation

A foundation consisting of an embedded post and all attached below-grade elements, which may include a footing, uplift resistance system, and collar.

Post height

The length of the non-embedded portion of a post.

Post size and spacing

Post size and post spacing are dictated by such factors as: size of wall openings, wall heights, spacing of primary roof framing, and type and magnitude of structural loads.

Post-frame building system

A building characterized by primary structural frames of wood posts as columns and trusses or rafters as roof framing. Roof framing is attached to the posts, either directly or indirectly through girders. Posts are embedded in the soil and supported on isolated footings, or are attached to the top of piers, concrete or masonry walls, or slabs-on-grade. Secondary framing members, purlins in the roof and girts in the walls, are attached to the primary framing members to provide lateral support and to transfer sheathing loads, both in-plane and out-of-plane, to the posts and roof framing.

Primary frame

The two-dimensional interior frame that is formed by the direct attachment of a roof truss/rafter to its respective posts. Also known as a post-frame or a main frame.

Primary framing members

Primary framing members are the main structural framing members in a building. In a post-frame building they include the posts, roof trusses/ rafters, and any girders that transfer load between roof trusses/rafters and posts.

Purlin

A member attached (typically at a right angle) to roof trusses/ rafters. Purlins laterally support trusses/rafters and transfer load between roof sheathing and roof trusses/rafters.

Purlin block

A member placed between purlins to help transfer load from roof sheathing to roof framing, to reduce purlin roll, and/or to eliminate bird perch points.

Purlin spacing

On-center spacing of purlins.

Purlin-laid-flat

A purlin that rests on top of roof trusses/rafters with its wide face in contact with the trusses/rafters.

Purlin-on-edge

A purlin that rests on top of roof trusses/rafters with its narrow face in contact with the trusses/rafters.

R
TermDefinition
Radiant Heat

Coils of electricity, hot water or steam pipes embedded in floors, ceilings, or walls to heat rooms.

Rafter

One of a series of sloped, structural beams that support a roof.

Rafter extension

A framing member attached to the end of a truss or rafter that extends the effective slope length of the roof by supporting additional purlins and/or subfasica. Rafter extensions are commonly used to help form eave overhangs as well as over shot roofs.

Rake line

Line formed by the intersection of the plane formed by the top edge of the purlins and the plane formed by the outside edge of the endwall girts.

Rake overhang distance

Horizontal distance from the rake line to the outside of the fly rafter.

Rake purlin

A purlin that overhangs the endwall of a building.

Rake rafter

A rafter located in an end wall.

Recessed purlin

A purlin located entirely between adjacent trusses/rafters. Single-span components that are typically held in place with special metal hangers. Also known as an inset purlin or dropped purlin.

Reinforced Concrete

Concrete strengthened with wire or metal bars.

Rib

 Raised moulding dividing a panel.

Ridge beam

Girder located at the ridge of a building.

Ridge line

Line formed by the intersection of the plane formed by the top edge of the purlins on one side of the roof and the plane formed by the top edge of the purlins on the opposite side of the roof. For a mono-slope roof, the ridge line is the line formed by the intersection of the plane formed by the top edge of the purlins and the plane formed by the outside edge of the girts in the tallest sidewall.

Ridge purlin

A purlin adjacent to the building ridge.

Roof truss

A truss that directly supports a roof.

Rough Sawn

Lumber and timber that has not been planed.

S
TermDefinition
Sash

The movable part of a window-the frame in which panes of glass are set in a window or door.

Screw-laminated post (or screw-lam post)

A mechanically laminated post in which only screws have been used to join individual wood layers.

Scuttle Hole

A small opening either to the attic, to the crawl space or to the plumbing pipes.

Seam (or stitch) fastener

An edge fastener that connects two structural sheathing panels thereby adding in-plane shear continuity between the panels.

Secondary framing

Bracing is a primary function of virtually all secondary framing members. For example, a principal function of purlins and girts is to provide lateral bracing to trusses and posts, respectively. Unlike braces used to help stabilize other structural components, purlins and girts are generally located to facilitate sheathing attachment, and their sizes are normally based on the magnitude of the loads applied to the sheathing, and on the spacing of the primary framing members to which they must transfer load.

Secondary framing members

Structural framing members that are used to transfer load between exterior sheathing and primary framing members, and/or laterally brace primary framing members. The secondary framing members in a post-frame building include girts, purlins, eave struts and any structural wood bracing.

Shear blocks

Short framing members used to help transfer shear force into or out of the structural sheathing of a diaphragm. For roof diaphragms, properly connected purlin blocks function as shear blocks.

Shearwall

A vertical diaphragm. Any endwall, sidewall, intermediate wall or portion thereof that is capable of transferring in-plane shear forces.

Shim

Thin tapered piece of wood used for leveling or tightening a other building element.

Shiplap

Siding Boards of special design (with rabbeted edges overlapping ) nailed horizontally to vertical studs with or without intervening sheathing to form the exposed surface of outside walls of frame buildings.

Sidewall

An exterior wall oriented perpendicular to individual primary frames.

Sill plate

A corrosion and decay resistant member that is attached to the top of a concrete foundation wall, and upon which posts are attached.

Single-span primary frame

Primary frame without any interior supports. Also known as a clear span primary frame. Multi-span primary frame: Primary frame with one or more interior supports.

Slab

Concrete floor placed directly on earth or a gravel base and usually about four inches thick.

Slab-on-grade foundation

A reinforced concrete slab that rests on the soil surface. Slab areas located directly beneath structural columns or walls are generally thicker and more heavily reinforced. Long, thickened and reinforced 

Soffit

The visible underwide of structural members such as staircases, cornices, beams, a roof overhang or eave.

Solid-sawn post

Post comprised of a single piece of sawn lumber.

Solid-web primary frame

Primary frame assembled without using any open-web trusses.

Spaced girder

A girder composed of two beams that are separated a fixed distance by special spacers and/or the girder supports.

Splash plank

Any decay and corrosion resistant girt that is in soil contact or located near the soil surface, that remains visible from the building exterior upon building completion, and is 2 to 4 inches in nominal thickness. Frequently, multiple rows of tongue and groove (T&G) splash plank are used along the base of a wall.

Spliced post

A mechanically laminated post in which individual laminations are fabricated by end-joining shorter wood members. End joints are generally either unreinforced butt joints, mechanically-reinforced butt joints, glued scarf joints, or glued finger joints.

Stacked rafter

A narrow, deep rafter made by placing one rafter on top of another and fastening them together. Generally made by fastening dimension lumber together with metal connector plates.

Stem wall foundation

A foundation consisting of a continuous wall that may be placed on a continuous footing. The base of the foundation is generally located below expected frost penetration depths.

 

Stringer

A long, horizontal member which connects uprights in a frame or supports a floor or the like. One of the enclosed sides of a stair supporting the treads and risers.

Structural composite lumber post (SCL post)

Post comprised of a single piece of structural composite lumber. Structural composite lumber (SCL) includes, but is not limited to: parallel strand lumber (PSL), laminated veneer lumber (LVL), and laminated stand lumber (LSL).

Structural ridge cap

A component that covers the ridge of a building and is capable of transferring shear force between diaphragms located on opposite sides of the ridge.

Structural sheathing

Frame coverings that are selected in part for their ability to absorb and transfer structural loads. Common structural sheathings include plywood, oriented strand board, and corrugated steel.

Structural sheathing panel

An individual piece of structural sheathing.

Studs

In wall framing, the vertical members to which horizontal pieces are nailed. Studs are spaced either 16 inches or 24 inches apart.

Sub-fascia

A structural member located under the fascia or eave/ fascia trim. In a building with overhangs, the edge purlins and fly rafters generally function as sub-fascia. In a building without overhangs, the eave strut and rake rafters generally function as sub-fascia.

Subfloor

Usually, plywood sheets that are nailed directly to the floor joists and that receive the finish flooring.

T
TermDefinition
T-reinforcement

A member that is attached to a structural framing member such that the cross-section of the two adjoined members forms a tee.

Tie

A wood member which binds a pair of principal rafters at the bottom.

Tie-down block

A framing member used to attach a roof truss/rafter to a girder.

Toenail

Driving nails at an angle into corners or other joints.

Tongue-And-Groove

Carpentry joint in which the jutting edge of one board fits into the grooved end of a similar board.

Top Girt

The highest girt. A top girt to which both roof and wall sheathing are attached is known as an eave strut.

Track board

A member to which a sliding door track is directly attached.

Track board support

A structural framing member that is used to support a track board.

Tread

The horizontal part of a stair step.

Truss (Wood Trusses)

A structural framework, generally two-dimensional (i.e. planar), whose members are almost always assembled to form a series of inter-connected triangles. Perimeter members of the assembly are called truss chords and interior members are called truss webs.

Truss girder

A wood truss that functions as a girder. Top and bottom chords of a truss girder are generally parallel.

U
TermDefinition
Unspliced post

A mechanically laminated post in which individual laminations do not contain end joints.

Uplift anchor

Any element mechanically attached to an embedded post or pier to increase the uplift resistance of the foundation. Common uplift anchors include concrete footings, concrete collars, preservative-treated wood blocks, steel angles, and concrete backfill.

V
TermDefinition
V-brace

A pair of diagonal braces that meet at one of their ends, thus forming a “V”. Generally, one brace will be in axial tension while the other brace is loaded in axial compression.

Valley

The depression at the meeting point of two roof slopes.

Vapor Barrier

Material such as paper, Plastic, Fiber, or metal or paint which is used to prevent vapor from passing from rooms into the outside walls.

Vent Pipe

A pipe which allows gas to escape from plumbing systems.

Verge

The edge of tiles, slates or shingles, projecting over the gable of a roof.

W
TermDefinition
Wall Sheathing

Sheets of plywood, gypsum board, metal Panel, or other material nailed to the outside face of studs or girts as Sheets of plywood, gypsum board, or other material nailed to the outside face of studs as a base for exterior siding., or as a base for exterior siding.

Web plane diagonal brace

A diagonal brace that lies in the plane formed by the web members of adjacent trusses. The brace generally runs from the roof plane to the ceiling plane, and is required in truss web planes that contain continuous lateral restraints to keep the CLR from shifting.

Working Days

Generally speaking, it is all days except Saturdays, Sundays, and applicable local, state and federal holidays. 

Workmanlike

Work performed to the acceptable quality of generally recognized industry standards that does not compromise strength, function, or durability.  

X
TermDefinition
X-brace

A pair of diagonal braces that cross each other thus forming an “X”. Generally, one brace will be in axial tension while the other brace is loaded in axial compression.

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